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Spine Abnormalities

SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

Is the anterior or posterior displacement of a vertebra or vertebral column in relation to the adjacent vertebrae. This condition is most common in the lumbar spine. Spondylolisthesis is categorized into five different types or grades (I-V); the higher the grade, the more likely to cause pain. This condition has been known to be a source of low back pain that may or may not extend down into the legs and feet.

Treatment:
PLIF
ALIF


HERNIATED DISC

Is known as many different terms, such as “pinched nerve”, “bulging disc”, and “ruptured disc”. This is a condition where there is a tear in the outer fibrous ring of the disc that allows the central, soft portion of the disc to bulge out beyond the outer rings, sometimes compressing the nerve root. This tear may cause inflammation leading for one to experience severe pain. This spinal condition can occur at any level of the spine; cervical, thoracic, and lumbar. This condition can be treated conservatively with NSAIDS and epidural steroid injections. However, sometimes this condition needs surgical intervention and the location of the herniation determines the type of surgical intervention necessary.

Treatments:
MLD
PLIF
ALIF
ACDF


SPINAL STENOSIS

There are two types of spinal stenosis; lumbar stenosis and cervical stenosis. Spinal stenosis is the abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal. The narrowing can cause restriction of the spinal canal, resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, and loss of motor control. The spinal canal becomes narrowed at the veterbral canal where the nerve roots pass through, compressing the nerve. Lumbar stenosis is far more common than cervical but cervical stenosis can be more dangerous as it involves compression of the spinal cord. This condition can be treated conservatively with NSAIDS, physical therapy, and steroid injections. However, sometimes this condition needs surgical intervention.

Treatments:
PLIF
ACDF


DEGENERATIVE DISC DISEASE

Degeneration of one or more intervertebral disc is called degenerative disc disease. Disc degeneration is part of normal aging, however, it can be a source of back pain. Disc pain is the result of injury and inflammation. A degenerative disc is characterized by ......

Surgical Treatment:
ACDF
PLIF
MLD


COMPRESSION FRACTURE

A compression fracture is the collapse of the verterbral body due to trauma, osteoporosis, infection, or cancer. This collapse of the veterbrae ....... is the source of the pain with this fracture.  This is a condition which can be treated conservatively with NSAID and supportive back bracing. However, sometimes surgical intervention is necessary.

Treatment:
KYPHOPLASTY


CENTRAL CORD SYNDROME

Is an acute cervical spinal cord injury caused by spondolytic spinal disease or trauma which causes bruising of the spinal cord leading to excessive swelling. This condition can lead to complications below the level of the injury, including motor impairment, loss of sensory, bladder dysfunction and urinary retention. This is a condition which can be treated conservatively, however, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Treatment:
ACDF


CAUDA EQUINA SYNDROME

Is a neurological condition where there is an acute loss of function of the lumbar plexus (which sits at the end of the terminal end of the spinal cord), nerve roots (levels L1-S1) of the canal below the end of the spinal cord. This condition can be the effect of a spinal tumor, herniated discdirect trauma, spinal stenosis, or chronic spinal inflammatory conditions. This syndrome present with symptoms of lower extremity weakness and pain, urinary retention, incontinence of urine and stool, and inability to walk. This condition frequently needs surgical intervention and is considered a surgical emergency dependent on the cause.

Treatment:
PLIF


SPINAL TUMOR

A spinal tumor can be either a cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign) growth that develops near the spine or on the bones of the spine that can compress nearby nerves of the spine.  Pain is the most common symptom of spinal tumors. Spinal tumors are very rare and usually not the source of back pain. Surgical treatment is necessary.
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